Harlem Hellfighters: Business & Creative Genius Behind the Scenes

James Reese Europe and Horace Pippen

Two backstories are illustrated by the musical genius of the regiment’s leader, James Reese Europe
and artist Horace Pippen.

Horace Pippen injured during his time as a Harlem Hellfighter, taught himself how to adapt, and continued to paint after returning home. His letters and notes are archived in the Smithsonian.

Europe’s demise was a tragedy on many levels. Europe’s interpersonal and leadership skills were thought to be the catalyst that could help influence the integration of the American military. And some historians believe his death delayed the process for decades.

Gold light display

James Reese Europe & The Hellfighters Band

Brendan McNalley, Nazis & Dinosaurs
Lieutenant James Reese Europe

Defense Media Network.com
“Lt. James Reese Europe:
The World Catches Jazz Fever,
Compliments of the U.S. Army”

Horace Pippin notebooks and letters, circa 1920, 1943.
Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.

A More Unending Battle:
The Harlem Hellfighters Struggle for Freedom in WWI…

Amsterdamnews.com? Harlem Hellfighters finally awarded Congressional Gold Medal. http://amsterdamnews.com/news/2021/sep/02/harlem-hellfighters-finally-awarded-congressional-/


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